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Test des yeux d’haltères

But de l'article

Cet article de Bozeman Creative vient en complément de l'article Les 15 meilleurs modèles de mouches pour la carpe et apporte un éclairage sur le positionnement de la mouche en fonction du placement des yeux haltère sur ou sous la hampe de l'hameçon.

Les tests

Test des yeux d'haltères - Cette vidéo teste l'emplacement des yeux d'haltères montés sur la hampe de l’hameçon. L'auteur teste l'attachement des yeux sous et au-dessus de la hampe de l'hameçon dans plusieurs conditions, dont un test dans l'eau. Cette vidéo pourrait aider les débutants à comprendre l'effet des yeux d'haltère sur une mouche en fonction de l'endroit où elle est attachée.
Voir la méthode pour placer les yeux d’haltères au-dessus ou au- dessous de la hampe de l’hameçon.

Un premier test en eau d’aquarium permet de vérifier qu’avec un positionnement des yeux d’haltères au-dessus de la hampe on obtient un positionnement aléatoire de la pointe de l’hameçon lors de la chute dans l’eau, à l’inverse le positionnement des yeux d’haltères au-dessous de la hampe permet d’obtenir un positionnement systématique de la pointe de l’hameçon vers le haut lors de la chute dans l’eau.

Un deuxième test reprenant les mêmes mouches a été effectué avec un bas de ligne de fil de nylon noué à l’hameçon, toujours dans une aquarium en eau calme.
Résultat, avec les yeux d’haltères au-dessus de la hampe permet d’obtenir un positionnement systématique de la pointe de l’hameçon vers le haut lors de la chute dans l’eau, à l’inverse le positionnement des yeux d’haltères au-dessous de la hampe ne permet pas d’obtenir un bon positionnement de la pointe de l’hameçon et de la mouche lors de la chute dans l’eau, la mouche se trouve couchée sur le flanc.
Hypothèses: dans le premier cas le fil de nylon occasionnerait un phénomène de dragage qui freinerait la chute de la mouche et favoriserait le positionnement des yeux d’haltères vers le bas et donc entrainerait automatiquement la pointe de l’hameçon vers le haut, alors que dans le deuxième cas il existerait une rotation autour de l’attache du fil qui annihilerait le positionnement automatique des yeux d’haltères.

Un troisième test a utilisé une pompe afin de simuler un environnement en eau courante. Le même montage des yeux d’haltère que dans les tests précédents est utilisé mais ici, afin de limiter les mouvements hératiques du montage, on utilisera différents montages de mouche dont une imitation de Chabot.
Résultat le montage des yeux d’haltères au-dessous de la hampe permet à la mouche d’obtenir un bon positionnement de la pointe de l’hameçon vers le haut même dans un courant modéré.

Intérêt des tests

Ces tests sont importants pour le montage de certaines mouches dès l’instant où l’on veut que la pointe de l’hameçon soit tournée vers le haut comme dans les montages avec une bille fendue pour hameçon jig. Je pense en particulier à ces mouches pour la pêche de la carpe qui permet de pêcher dans des endroits encombrés ou dans des herbiers afin de limiter les cas d’accroche.
On notera les différences de positionnement de la mouche suivant qu’on pêche en eau calme (test N°2) ou en eau courante (test N°3).

Selon le montage des yeux d'haltère, en-dessus ou en-dessous de la hampe de l’hameçon, on obtient un positionnement et un comportement différent de la mouche suivant qu’on pêche en eau calme (lac, réservoir, rivière calme) ou en eau courante (torrents et en général dans les rivières).
A la lumière de ces tests il apparait que le même modèle de mouche devra comporter les deux types de montage des yeux d'haltères suivant le plan d’eau pêché:

  • Au-dessus de la hampe pour les plans d’eau calmes,
  • En-dessous de la hampe pour les rivières avec du courant.

Et qu’en est-il de l’utilisation des billes de tungstène?
Peut-on étendre ces constatations aux modèles très nombreux de mouches utilisant les billes de tungstène fendues pour les hameçons jig ou les billes de tungstène inversées appelées Jig Off à trou décalé?
Votre expérience ou articles à ce sujet sont le bienvenus.

Swimming Nymph—Bob Clouser

Les 15 meilleurs modèles de mouches pour la carpe

Un article de Jay Zimmerman sur les 15 meilleures mouches à carpe.

Jay Zimmerman

The author Jay Zimmerman with a nice carp (photo by Erin Block).

It is difficult to stereotype an intelligent species. Carp have a longer memory and a better ability to learn than most fish we fly anglers are accustomed to. I will never profess to know the best flies and best approach to fool the carp in your home waters, but these 15 will give you a solid head start. All carp act differently and it is up to you to do the legwork and homework it takes to learn your carp. As you explore your home water, always keep in mind what aquatic environment the carp are living in, the water temperature, the weather, what they are eating and how much human pressure they receive.

The Environment—Carp are very much products of their environment, just as we carp anglers become products of our carp's behavior. It has been fascinating to watch the carp craze spread across the country and see how different people, living in different places, have approached the game—both in angling and in fly tying. I have seen the carp culture expand, diversify and begin to evolve into very different styles, all based on the environment that the local carp are found. 

Great Lakes carpers are those anglers who have focused their attention on the carp that inhabit the five massive "inland seas" on our eastern border with Canada. This style of carp fishing is the most like saltwater fly fishing in that it calls for reliable boats, poling platforms and heavy rods. The carp are big, migratory and very predatory. For the fly tier, this translates to larger, heavier flies such as Goby and crayfish patterns that sink fast and can get the attention of a large carp that is traveling a long ways. River carp anglers are those who have become as common a sight on their favorite river as a great blue heron. It could be the Columbia River on the northwest coast, a Missouri River tributary or the South Platte in downtown Denver, the flies and tactics become somewhat similar and transferable. River carp flies tend to be much smaller than the Great Lakes patterns, but do not scrimp on weight—they need to be able to fight currents and get down to where the fish are feeding. Small freshwater clams and different species of aquatic worms are very prevalent in the river carpers tying arsenal.

The high, arid plains around the Rocky Mountains where water rights have caused more fistfights than oil or women ever will are also home to carp. Almost every trickle of water that comes out of the mountains is dammed and captured before it can get too far. These reservoirs provide a unique environment for carp and carp anglers. The flies favored by these reservoir carp anglers usually lack great anatomical detail, and tend to be darker in color than clear-water carp flies, because the water is usually slightly muddy. Vague leech imitations and dark-colored crayfish patterns are preferred.

Another distinctly different type of carp fishery is often found in the eastern United States and those who partake have become adept at the camouflage and finesse needed to successfully hunt carp in the clear, weedy ponds and canals of their home states. These situations call for more damsel and dragonfly nymphs tied lighter, to land soft and have more detail.

Forage—The forage that most carp fly patterns are modeled after are crayfish, leeches and nymphal stages of some of the larger aquatic insects (usually damselflies or dragonflies). Some of these imitations can be quite detailed and realistic ties, while others are pure suggestions of something a carp deems edible. Be it super realistic or ultra impressionistic, the two most important characteristics of any carp fly is the same—it must act alive when wet and be of the proper weight for the water the fly is being used. Do not get too hung up on what the carp are actually feeding on, concentrate more on if the carp is feeding and how the carp is feeding. As a rule, a hungry carp has a better chance of eating your fly than one that is not feeding. This may sound like fishing advice from Yogi Berra, but the gist of the advice is sound. It is convenient to suggest that an angler should be sure to "know the forage" in order to have success, but that is much easier said than done. An angler usually has to make general assumptions and choose flies based on that alone.

Erin Block hooked-up on carpflats

Erin Block hooked up on carpflats (photo by Jay Zimmerman).

Pressure—All fish react to human pressure, even the dumb ones. Pressure has the most adverse effects on carp, because they have long memories and a high IQ. This can manifest itself in a couple of different ways. If the body of potential carp water is super public, as in "community park public" with lots of foot traffic, dog walking, children screaming, sticks, balls and disk golf . . . then you can bet the carp have patterned the people and are only active in the early mornings, right at dusk and at night. These types of places usually attract many bait fishermen, who may have no interest in taking a "lowly" carp home to eat (they are there for the catfish?) but have no qualms with chucking a weighted string of hooks at a ten pound carp and trying to snag it if it makes the mistake of swimming too close to the motley collection of forked sticks and bait buckets. One bow fishermen in your neighborhood can also seriously put the spook in the local carp. Carp are still considered an invasive "trash" fish and there are those who make legal sport of this. Any of this interaction with humans makes carp very leery of any movement on the bank of the lake. Wariness in a carps behavior does not directly affect what they are willing to eat, but being conscious of the mood of the carp will dictate how you dress (does Realtree make fishing shirts?), how quickly you move and how long and careful your casts need to be. You may find other bodies of water that are out of easy reach of the masses, but still receive a fair amount of fly-fishing pressure. These areas will instill a selective fly wariness in some of the carp. You may make a perfect cast, the fish sees some movement in the mud and swoops in for the eat . . . but freaks out as soon as it sees and recognizes your fly. If you have this happen, change up material colors on your favorite fly, or switch patterns entirely.

The Flies

Swimming Nymph—Bob Clouser

Swimming Nymph—Bob Clouser is best known for his groundbreaking streamer pattern the Clouser Deep Minnow, a streamer created for smallmouth bass on the Susquehanna, his home river in Pennsylvania—the Clouser Swimming Nymph he tied later. A book was published in Boulder, Colorado in 1997 co-authored by Barry Reynolds called Carp on the Fly. This book became a sort of rough doctrine for the carp revolution and the fly that was the chosen child of the revolution was Bob Clouser's little swimming nymph. "When [we] speak of this fly, it is almost with religious fervor. This is THE fly, our #1 producer," Barry wrote. 

Swimming Nymph—Bob Clouser

Near 'Nuff Crayfish

Dave Whitlock has spent most of his fishing life in and around the Arkansas Ozarks and his writings have appeared regularly in many sporting publications.At one time Dave had over thirty of his signature fly patterns being tied commercially by Umpqua Feather Merchants— many of these have become household names. One of these flies is the Near 'Nuff Crayfish. This crayfish pattern was first introduced commercially in 1996 and has maintained the rank of "best" or "most realistic" of any crayfish patterns tied before or since.

Near 'Nuff Crayfish


Lance Egan grew up fishing in and around Salt Lake City, Utah and cut his teeth on carp swimming in Pineview Reservoir, Willard Bay Reservoir and the Bear River. Although the Headstand carp fly was born in Utah it quickly spread across state lines, popping up in fly shops in almost everywhere. It is a very effective fly and is best fished to tailing carp that are relatively stationary, or to wary fish that are slinking around in shallow, clear water looking for food. The Headstand is tied on a curved hook, designed to rest on the bottom and be gently twitched by the angler; it is not a fly designed for cruising or faster-moving fish.


Carp Bug

The first gig at a fly shop I managed to land was in Longmont, Colorado. I was new to the state and curious how the anglers in the area went about chasing carp and how they rigged and what flies they used. Andrew Spinato, a shop customer and career fire fighter who had been chasing the local carp for some time, was tying the Carp Bug. The first day out with two of his flies I landed eight carp from six to twelve pounds.

Carp Bug


I have fallen in love with the look and style of Ian Anderson's Hammerhead, but its size and weight makes it an impractical fly for the carp waters I fish in Colorado. I set out to recreate the fly as a mid-depth, still water crayfish pattern that I could use. The fly had to have lots of movement, sink fast . . . but be lightweight. Because of these limitations, I had to scale the fly down in size and replace the rabbit strips with Crawdub dubbing. I also incorporated some of my favorite Krystal Flash and Sili legs in the back to make it more realistic.  

Ball Peen Craw


The Swimming Halfback is a fly created by Blair Lampe. He took one of his favorite nymphs, the Halfback, and tweaked it slightly to add a bit more movement and some tiny lead eyes to add weight enough to flip the hook and make the fly ride hook point up. Blair and his brother, Brian tested and developed the fly in their dad's ponds near Fort Morgan, Colorado until it was ready for public consumption.  

Swimming Halfback


Over the last decade the Backstabber has been my go-to carp fly and I have used it to land thousands of fish. I have found that an olive-colored Backstabber works best for the large, spooky carp in clear, well-foliaged waters and the black-colored one is ideal for muddy water (mainly because it is easier for me to see) and the wine-colored one works best in the early season when the water is still cold. The grey minnow Backstabber is my late-season go-to, when the water levels in my local reservoirs drop low enough to pull the carp out from the food-rich cattail beds and coves and they are forced to chase shad.



Rob Kolanda created the Bellycrawl—a shrimp-like oddity that incorporates a ribbed tungsten body weight to get the fly to sink fast in current and swim hook point up. Rob used the Bellycrawl in 2008 and 2009 to help win first place back-to-back at the South Platte Pro-Am Carp Slam in Denver, Colorado.


Carp Carrot

Jim Pankiewicz is from Seattle, Washington and regularly pursues the carp in the Pacific North West. Jim tied the first Carp Carrot after poking around in his mass of old flies and tying material and running across some cards of orange wool he used to use for the bodies of trout flies back in the 1970s. He combined that with dyed pheasant rump feather he already had handy from tying some of his other favorite trout flies.

Carp Carrot

Carp Bitter

The Carp Bitter is one of Barry Reynolds earlier signature carp fly patterns. The first Carp Bitters date back to 2007 and were introduced in his DVD The Flyrodder's Guide to Carp. Barry found that the rust and olive variations were the best day in and day out. He found that the rust and orange-colored Carp Bitter worked best for the muddy water carp in his local ponds in and around Denver, Colorado. The olive version, however, became an absolute killer on the South Platte River that flows through Denver.

Carp Bitter

Admiral Akbar

The Admiral Akbar carp fly (deliberate misspelling) was created in 2010 by Minnesota rough fisher, Jean-Paul Lipton for the common carp, buffalo, quillback and redhorse in the Ottertail River drainage. Jean-Paul discovered the orange colored bead chain at a Hobby Lobby near his home and they put the needed finishing touch to the fly patterns he had on his tying bench Like many fly tiers who live in rural areas, or generally outside the range of well-stocked fly shops, he has made a habit of plundering yarn shops and craft stores to find ingredients.

Admiral Akbar


John Bartlett from Oregon created the Hybrid, a cross between a worm and soft hackled wet fly. The Hybrid is a carp fly designed to sink to the bottom as quickly as possible and wait there, looking subtle and inviting, until a carp moves into the vicinity and thinks it is too good to pass up. Every fly fisher in America knows about the steelhead runs that move up the Columbia River, they are the thing of legends. However, John "Montana" Bartlett, forever the cowboy, has his mind set hard on carp— carp on the fly.


Black Ops

Christopher Vargo from St. Louis, Missouri created the Black Ops carp fly for the off-color Missouri River tributaries near his home. I love simple, yet suggestive carp patterns and the Black Ops has quickly become one of my favorite patterns on the mud flats in my home state of Colorado.


Carp Breakfast

Kevin Morlock has built a solid reputation as one of the premier carp fly fishing guides on and around Lake Michigan's Beaver Island. Kevin's fly, the Carp Breakfast has quickly become one of his client's favorite flies, as well as a sure killer all around the Great Lakes region— where big, heavy patterns are necessary and effective. 


Banjowood Seed

In the heat of late spring and early summer the cottonwood trees begin dropping fluffy white seed pods that are notorious for fouling outdoor swimming pools and hanging up on the knots in a fly fisher's leader. Once these seeds find their way into the water they become easy, fresh food for carp. The cottonwood "hatch" happens every year and can go on for well over a month. I have experimented with many different materials to make the perfect cottonwood seed fly and have found the long, white shed hair that comes of my dog Banjo are better than anything. 


Technique de montage d’un abdomen

Cette technique de montage d'un abdomen peut être utilisée pour obtenir un dessous de corps plus clair que son dos, ce qui correspond généralement à la réalité des corps d'insectes dans la nature.
Elle peut être utilisée pour la confection de modèles imitatifs et réalistes (ce qui ne prouve pas une efficacité plus grande en action de pêche).
Différentes méthodes plus ou moins simples sont possibles mais cette méthode pratiquée par le monteur polonais Piotr Sołtysik est relativement facile et donne naturellement un aspect annelé au corps. 

Utiliser par exemple du fil DMC, du Spantex ou encore du fil synthétique de sac de pomme de terre comme matériau de montage de l’abdomen.

Voir pas à pas la technique de montage de l'abdomen. 

Astuce : Ne pas oublier de retourner l’hameçon pour faciliter ce montage.

D’autres techniques apparentées peuvent également être appliquées sur les côtés du corps pour confectionner des branchies par exemple à partir de fibres de plumes d’autruche ou autres.
Voir du même auteur un exemple appliqué sur ce modèle de Micro nymphe, ou encore sur des modèles à base de corps en quill ou de fil élastique tel que ce modèle ou encore celui-ci ou celui-là.

Poils de lièvre

Les matériaux de montage

Un article de Fabri-Mouches sur l'utilisation de matériaux pour  le montage des mouches.
Cet article passe en revue pratiquement tous les matériaux qu'on peut utiliser pour le montage de mouches.

  • Le Hackle Démystifié
  • Les Hackles
  • Les Hackles pour les Mouches Dee & Spey
  • Les Matériaux Synthétiques
  • Les Mouches-Tube
  • Les Plumes
  • Les Poils & les Fourrures
  • Matériaux Divers
  • Teindre des Plumes & des Poils
  • Lire l'article...

    Mouche de mai

    Le montage des corps détachés

    Pourquoi fabriquer des corps détachés?

    On peut se poser la question de savoir si ce type de montage s'impose.
    La communauté des monteurs et des pêcheurs à la mouche est sans doute divisée sur ce sujet.
    Parmi les monteurs Il y a ceux qui trouvent dans cet exercice le moyen de faire preuve de leur dextérité, et les autres qui n'osent pas affronter la difficulté.
    Parmi les pêcheurs il y a ceux qui ne jurent que par l'imitation de la mouche exacte et les autres qui ne s'encombrent pas de détails et n'emploient que des mouches généralistes, voire fantaisistes.
    Il n'y a certainement pas une vérité et c'est la raison pour laquelle le corp détaché, pour certains montages, ne doit pas être écarté. 

    Le corps détaché vecteur de la mouche imitative

    De par la technique et les matériaux utilisés pour le montage des corps détachés, de sa vocation à tenter de représenter les corps des insectes naturels, on peut donc en conclure que le corps détaché entre dans la réalisation de mouches imitatives, c'est à dire d'un modèle qui tend à imiter l'insecte naturel avec la plus grande exactitude.
    Statistiquement la plus grande utilisation des corps détachés se trouve dans l'imitation de la mouche de mai (mais pas que).
    La majorité des imitations de ce modèle utiliseront donc le corps détaché.

    Les matériaux et supports utilisés

    Différents matériaux et supports entrent dans la confection des corps détachés, et, suivant les cas, offrent des ressemblances plus ou moins exactes avec le corps des insectes naturels, mais aussi complexifient plus ou moins le montage.

    Les supports de montage

    On retiendra que pour faciliter le montage des corps détachés l'outil le plus répandu est l'aiguille.
    Elle peut être très rudimentaire (le trombone) ou domestique (aiguille à coudre) ou plus sophistiquée (aiguille à monter des mouches tube) ou spécialisée (aiguille courbe, avec arrêt de fil de montage, aiguille de tapissier, etc...) ou artisanale (sur ce point j'ai demandé à notre ami Jean-Marc  du club de mouche de Balma, de réfléchir à un outil en bois pour formater le montage des corps).
    Dès l'instant où vous aborderez ce type de montage, l'aiguille vous rendra le montage facilité et vous l'aurez vite compris deviendra l'outil indispensable. De plus elle devient indissociable du matériaux employé.

    Certains montages utilisent d'autres supports tels que le fil de nylon ou de montage, qui en fait joue un rôle d'extension artificielle de la hampe de l'hameçon.

    Les matériaux

    Il n'existe pas de limitation aux matériaux qui entrent dans la confection des corps détachés et votre imagination est la seule limite.
    Les matériaux les plus répandus sont:

    • La mousse alvéolée ou plus dense (foam),
    • Le vernis,
    • Le silicone,
    • Le synthétique,
    • Le latex,
    • Les fibres,
    • Le dubbing,

    Les montages de corps détachés

    Montages représentatifs par types

    Montage à base de mousse:

    Realistic Mayfly Body by J:sonSweden

    Montée par JsonSweden

    Montage étape par étape.

    Montage basé sur de la mousse (foam) à l'aide une aiguille spéciale , du fil de montage, cerques en fil de nylon, des enroulements de fil de montage créant un corps annelé suivant le procédé classique d’enroulements de passage alterné avant/arrière par rapport au morceau de mousse.
    Noter que pour obtenir cette forme effilée du corps il faut qu’au préalable la découpe de la mousse ne soit pas parallèle mais oblique. C’est apparemment cette découpe au ciseau qui le permet.
    Noter que le fil de montage n’a pas servi uniquement de support de montage mais également de formatage du corps permettant, par tension, de lui donner une forme courbe.
    Signalons également la capacité de peindre au marqueur le corps en mousse. De plus le fil de nylon restant libre à la fin du montage du corps, outre permettant de formater le corps par tension, sera utilisé pour attacher et consolider le corps sur l’hameçon.
    Avantage de la mousse:
    flottabilité, légèreté, souplesse, supporte le coloriage.

    Realistic Mayfly Body

    Montage à base de vernis:

    Fabrication d'un corps détaché

    Montée par Damien Moretti - Madflyfishing

    Voir les matériaux

    Montage étape par étape.

    Noter la facilité pour monter les cerques, le corps en dubbing, grâce à l’aiguille enduite de vernis. De plus le corps en dubbing est enduit de vernis.
    Veiller à extraire le montage de l’aiguille et à former le corps avant que le vernis ne soit trop sec.
    Noter également la fragilité du montage, en particulier sur l’attache des cerques, et celle du corps en dubbing.
    Ce montage ne comporte ni teinture du corps, ni cerclage. On peut se poser la question de la capacité de teinter un corps en dubbing. Nécessiterait donc de choisir un dubbing de couleur proche de l’insecte naturel (jaune, beige, marron clair, etc...) voire de mixer plusieurs teintes de dubbing.

    Fabrication d'un corps détaché

    Montage à base de silicone:

    Silicone body mayfly (Ephemera danica)

    Montée par Laurynas Valasinavicius

    Voir les matériaux.

    Montage étape par étape.

    Sous-corps en silicone et corps en dubbing.
    Voir la pose des cerques sur le silicone.
    Noter que le montage du corps avec du dubbing est long et délicat.
    Le corps de dubbing est de plus recouvert de silicone.
    L’extraction du montage de l’aiguille est facilité grâce au silicone et on peut facilement donner la forme au corps avant séchage du silicone.

    Questions: N'est-ce pas trop lourd? Sera-t-il possible de colorier le corps, sans doute après que le silicone soit sec?

    Silicone body mayfly

    Montage à base de synthétique:

    Montage d'une mouche de mai à corps détache

    Montée par PIQUARD Gérard

    Voir les matériaux.

    Montage étape par étape à base de film d’emballage d’ordinateur.

    Noter que ce montage se fait directement sur l’hameçon mais on peut imaginer utiliser et expérimenter le film d’emballage d’ordinateur en utilisant une aiguille.
    Questions: Mouche trop lourde pour une sèche?

    Montage d'une mouche de mai à corps détache

    Montage à base de latex:

    Flexibler Fliegenkörper

    Montée par William Ensiferum

    Gants en vinyle jetables,
    Aiguille spéciale,
    Crayons de couleur,
    Matériau de la queue (inconnu).

    Montage étape par étape.

    Montage basé sur un gabarit (pourrait être par exemple une pique en bois, un tube plastique, etc...) et du latex (imaginer d’autres matériaux comme les bandes de vinyl ou autre).
    Voir L’outil de Daniel Wilmers Le Körpernadel

    Flexibler Fliegenkörper

    Autres montages par types

    Montage à base de mousse:

    Montage à base de vernis:

    Montage à base de synthétique:

    Montage à base de latex:

    Montage à base de fibres:

    Montage à base d'autres matériaux:

    Pink Graylings Favourite Bug

    Les articles traduits

    Un certain nombre d'articles d'auteurs américains, donnant leur vision des choses, ont fait l'objet de traductions.

    Pour accéder aux traductions d'articles vos dons pour la recherche sur la maladie de Charcot seront nécessaires, ainsi vous obtiendrez les mots de passe correspondants pour accéder à cette sélection d'articles ci-après:

    Article Hot spot

    Credit image Fly Tyer Here’s a collection of flies tied with fluorescent orange hot spots. Even under ultraviolet light, the hot spots reflect orange light.

    Hotspots Make Flies Sizzle! 
    Article très instructif et intéressant sur les hot spots.
    La traduction.


    Crédit image: History ~ Theory ~ Application ….. Loren Williams

    HOT SPOTS : L'article d'Orvis n'existe plus.....
    Hot Spots
    History ~ Theory ~ Application ….. Loren Williams

    La traduction.

    Fly Fishing with Chris Dore

    Crédit photo Chris Dore

    Hot Belly Pheasant Tail

    Trout and feather attractor nymph.
    Un article donnant une sélection de nymphes attractives.
    La traduction.

    Simple Winter Grayling Pink Shrimp

    The Four Kinds of Fishing Flies 
    Théorie sur les quatre sortes de mouches.
    La traduction.

    Mouche domestique

    Mouche domestique

    When you can’t fish flies, tie them
    Faire des montages lorsqu'on ne va pas à la pêche.
    La traduction.


    Fly Fishing Strategies: Over or Under? Your best bet on weight 
    Article très intéressant sur le lestage des mouches.
    La traduction.

    Czech Nymphing 101

    Czech Nymphing 101
    Article sur la technique de la pêche à la nymphe au fil.
    La traduction.

    Copperbaetis Mayfly Nymph

    The Importance of Fly Selection
    Article sur l'importance du choix de la mouche.
    La traduction.

    Mayfly Baetis Nymph

    3 Steps to Mastering Fly Selection
    Deuxième partie du choix de la mouche.
    La traduction

    Mouche de mai

    Etrait de la vidéo de Pascal Clouet

    Match the Hatch
    Troisième partie du choix de la mouche.
    La traduction

    Edge Bright Weighted Nymph

    The Four Kinds of Fishing Flies
    Quatrième partie du choix de la mouche.
    La traduction

    La Canche Montreuil

    Credit image P.Clabaut. sur Wikipédia

    Become a Master Observer
    Devenez un observateur professionnel.
    La traduction

    Baetis Nymph

    3 Ways to Improve Your Nymphing Fly Selection
    Trois méthodes pour améliorer le choix de la nymphe.
    La traduction.

    Fly fishing in a river

    Crédit photo Wikipédia

    Indicators & Dry Droppers
    Indicators & Dry Droppers
    Article sur les indicateurs et la technique d'utilisation.
    La traduction.

    La vision des couleurs chez les poissons

    La vision des couleurs chez les poissons (et chez les pêcheurs) un article de Jean Paul CHARLES, un article extrait du Magazine Carnassiers du Web A la lecture de cet article très instructif vous pourrez sans doute vous faire une idée de la façon dont les poissons voient vos mouches et sans doute d'en tenir compte pour vos imitations.

    Des extraits 

    "Nos carnassiers d’eau douce verraient comme vous et moi, un peu moins bien en vérité puisque nous disposons d’un nombre supérieur de cônes. Les poissons ont en revanche d’avantage de bâtonnets, ce qui améliore grandement leur vision nocturne ou par faible luminosité".

    "D’autre part, les spécialistes s’accordent tous à dire que les poissons sont myopes. Cela est dû à la forme sphérique de leur cristallin (contrairement à celle des mammifères qui est ovale) et à leur faible capacité d’accommodation (la « mise au point »), puisque leur œil fonctionne comme l’objectif d’un appareil photo, en faisant varier la distance focale, et non en déformant le cristallin comme chez nous. En gros, ils verraient très bien de près, mais assez flou de loin."
    Noter que cette dernière constatation est à l'origine d'un des arguments avancés par les américains pour justifier l'intérêt d'ajout de hot spots sur les imitations de mouches.

    "Ça ne change rien à leur perception des couleurs, par contre les subtils détails de certains leurres doivent sans doute leur apparaître un peu brouillés ! Notons au passage que certains poissons ont en plus une membrane réfléchissante –le Tapetum lucidum pour les intimes- qui reflète le moindre rayon lumineux et qui donne au sandre ce regard de verre si caractéristique, que l’on retrouve aussi chez les chats et les chiens lorsqu’ils sont éclairés par les phares d’une voiture..."
    D'où l'intérêt de monter des matériaux réfléchissants (tinsels holographiques, mylar, flashabou, etc...) sur vos mouches.

    "Nous pouvons donc conclure que nos amis à écailles perçoivent correctement toutes les couleurs, exactement comme nous quand nous faisons de la plongée en apnée. Pour pratiquer ce loisir régulièrement dans les eaux limpides de la Méditerranée, je sais bien que toutes les couleurs s’estompent passés quelques mètres, suivant un ordre précis que voici :...."
    Certaines couleurs seront donc mieux perçues que d'autres suivant l'éclairage et la profondeur d'eau.

    "Oui, mais c’est compter sans la fluorescence ! Il s’est avéré en effet que la rétine de beaucoup de poissons était sensible au rayonnement ultraviolet alors que la nôtre ne l’est pas...La question est de savoir si nos poissons d’eau douce perçoivent également les ultraviolets. Il semblerait bien que oui, au point que certains chercheurs parlent de vision quadrichromate pour désigner cette faculté des poissons que nous ne possédons pas. Pour le sandre en tout cas- et tous les percidés- nous le savions depuis longtemps, devant le succès des rouges japonais et autre vert chartreuse. Mais il semblerait que les cyprinidés voient parfaitement eux aussi les couleurs fluorescentes, avis aux faut aussi mentionner les couleurs phosphorescentes, qui procèdent de la même façon que les fluorescentes, mais qui libère plus lentement la lumière, ce qui font qu’elles « brillent » dans le noir. Elles rayonnent également dans la lumière U-V, ce qui les rend incontournables pour les grands fonds. "
    Ceci milite en faveur des hot spots fluorescents et phosphorescents. 

    "Comme nous, les poissons ne distinguent plus les couleurs par faible luminosité, mais ils discernent beaucoup mieux les valeurs, les nuances de gris si l’on veut. C’est pour cela sans doute que le blanc et le noir sont des couleurs régulièrement prenantes. Dans la semi clarté de l’aube ou du crépuscule, il vaut mieux jouer à fond la carte des contrastes ! C’est pour cela aussi que les couleurs fluos sont plus visibles, car elles continuent d’émettre dans des longueurs d’ondes plus « claires ».  D’autre part, il-y-a l’aspect « éclat », c’est-à-dire l’or, l’argent, les reflets holographiques qui eux aussi sont gérés par les bâtonnets, ainsi que le mouvement."
    Misons donc sur les couleurs fluos par faible luminosité... ou pas et sur les contrastes faisant également partie des critères des hot spots.

    "Mis à part les rivières à truite et les étangs calmes et limpides, la visibilité dans nos lacs et nos rivières ne dépasse pas 1 ou 2 mètres de profondeur, souvent moins. Dans ces conditions, et au vu de ce qui précède, je pense qu’il vaut mieux miser sur le contraste que sur la couleur à proprement parler. Les fonds sont clairs ? Prenez des leurres foncés, de n’importe quelle couleur, et vice versa."
    Peut-on l'appliquer aux mouches?

    Des conseils: 
    "Évitez le naturel ! Il faut déclencher l’attaque en énervant le poisson, pas en essayant de le tromper. En résumé, je dirais que le blanc et l’argent (holographique ou pas) sont les couleurs les plus régulièrement prenantes.
    Quand on ne sait pas quoi choisir, il faut commencer par celles-là.
    Dans les eaux très claires, les leurres aux couleurs réalistes seront mieux perçus, mais seront-ils plus efficaces que des couleurs « flashouilles » ? Rien n’est moins sûr face à des poissons agressifs, comme je viens de le dire..."

    Bien que ces derniers conseils s'appliquent aux leurres pour carnassiers, à la lecture de cet article sur la vision des poissons, on comprend mieux pourquoi les pêcheurs et monteurs américains ont introduit le concept de hot spot dans le montage des mouches artificielles.

    Czech Nymphing 101

    Czech Nymphing 101

    Des conseils techniques pour
    pêcher à la nymphe

    Steve Parrott nous enseigne comment pêcher à la nymphe au fil.
    Une vidéo très intéressante sur les différentes techniques et montages, en particulier sur les méthodes de pêche à plusieurs mouches.
    Voir également les couleurs des nymphes et les points principaux de la méthode appelée  "Méthode Tchèque."
    Note: On s'aperçoit à la lecture des sous-titres anglais de la vidéo qu'il y a des erreurs, à plus forte raison dans les sous-titres traduits. cette remarque est générale et s'applique à toutes les vidéo offrant les sous-titres et traductions automatisés. J'ai donc entrepris les corrections et ajouté les ponctuations dans les textes des sous-titres de la vidéo.

    Textes corrigés des sous-titres de la vidéo:

    Rigging and selecting flies

    Setting up your flies for the Czech method.

    You have a couple different options so you can run three flies which is great for big water deep water. It can be a little more problematic when fishing it wants to tangle a little bit more especially when you catch a fish.

    Three fly rig

    When setting up that three fly method though you'll want to light fly on the very first dropper tag, the middle position second drop or down is going to be your heaviest fly. That way the Flies will actually sink in a V when they come down and you'll have a light slide on top and the heaviest fly your anchor fly is going to be in the middle position​
    in a three fly rig.

    Two fly rig

    When you're setting up a two fly rig you always want the heaviest anchor fly on the bottom or point position and then you can run a lighter offering up top, whether it will have a bead, not to be, no weight, a little weigh, it doesn't really matter in that top position.

    Shallow water rig

    The only time you would switch those flies around on a jack nymph rig, as well as a Polish or a French rig and even the Spanish, is if you want to fish some really shallow water and that bottom fly is going to hang up really bad in that six to 18 inches of water you're going to move your heaviest fly up to the dropper tag and run your lighter fly on the back that way with moving the rod up and down or back and forth downstream you can control the depth of your drift a little bit better because if you're trying to control the depth of the drift with the heaviest fly on the bottom then you're going to be lifting it to wear your top fly is not in the water. So shallow water you move that heavy fly up to the point.

    What color flies do you fish

    That's really your personal preference. The way I look at it is first I'll choose weight.
    I try to color code all my flies with a little head or some kind of classification. I know how much these flies weight then as far as color choices we all know our home waters. Pick the color that you like. The color that you have the most confidence in my favorites are the catus greens, brown and orange woven nymphs, green and orange woven mints. There will be instances where I want to fish shrimp colored patterns and then I'll go with these super flashy flies. Sometimes we call those wilds or clown flies. They look like nothing in the river yet they're just there in a tractor. It's kind of like your flashback myths. But fly selection is completely up to you and then make notes when you fish a river and this fly worked really well on. This date make a note of it.
    When you set up your flies you want to have them at least 20 inches apart, when I say 20 inches apart you've got to drop or tag. That dropper tag is going to be 8 to 10 inches. You want to let that dropper tag hang and from the point that it's at the bottom where the fly is attached to the tag from there 20 inches apart. Plus with having these flies 20 inches apart you can really control it back.

    Approaching the river

    So, when approaching the river, you want to start you want to fish the edges. If you don't fish the edges of the river, you're probably going to walk across five or six fish that you could have called. These fish are tucked in next next to the bank with this higher flow and so you want to start low.
    You got your flies in your hand, nice little loop down below your fly line to give you some tension and then very very very little fly line out the end of the rod tip. I've got my indicator and about four inches of fly line out so what we're going to do now I'm going to point my rod downstream and just kind of flip my flies out into the water.
    I'm going to come to the one o'clock position and I'm going to pop it right in there drift; drift right at the very end of this drift we're going to give a quick position set it's an up and out to the one o'clock position. That way we can cast again go right back in the river. We're drifting drifting drifting if you haven't felt to take up and out as I'm casting this line into the water you can see that I instantly tighten up on it and start moving the rod tip downstream.
    With the Czech Polish French or Spanish method flies hit the water they go to the bottom as you create that 45-degree angle with your line entering the water
    You've got one fly that's tumbling across the bottom. Your other flight is kind of rolling up in the water column, so you're allowing the water to just roll that fly around on that dropper tag and it just looks like natural flies.
    Drifting although these flies are not that natural looking it's more we're getting back into that. We want the fish to to take it not being selective but being opportunistic. So you're able to cover the water column. However high hold your rod or adjust it to get to these fish. So you can cover a lot more water with a lot less effort. The one thing you never want to do is bat cast these flies they're so heavy.
    There's no taper on the leader so the power transfer coming from the rod to the fly line to the leader is pretty much killed what we're relying on is the weight on the end.
    The leader from the Flies to propel these forward the Flies are ridiculously heavy and some of these are upwards of four grams apiece so when they hit the water it's like Apollo 11 coming back in for re-entry. So is that a presentation cast no you want to take these flies you want to drive them in the water wha you're relying on is the fast water that your fishing is actually deadening just about any sound that the fish will hear.
    They'll pick up the splash sometimes with the lateral line and they'll think it's food. So a lot of times they'll swim right over there and eat it. But are you worried about delicate presentations?
    With this method no so you want to bring your rod tip to the one o'clock position.
    Lob cast it in tighten up on it the ultimate goal is to keep the line going into the water at a 45 degree angle and you're slightly pulling downstream like so. As you can see I'm crouched down I don't want to spook any of these fish if there any right here in this little side seam complete Czech ninfea.
    You're going to get a foot two feet max above that fish or where you think fish might be you're going to lob it in there.

    You're going to tighten up on it and start your drip and that first two feet before you where you think the fish are you're going to adjust your drift to make sure it's rolling across the bottom.
    It's not uncommon that you're looking at a fish or looking at a run knowing there's fish in there. You love it a foot to two feet above where you actually think the fish are and you hook one above it because as soon as flies hit they are in contact with the bottom and the fish typically just swim over. Pick them right up we're going to break this river down into 12 inch sections we're going to go across the river starting right next to the bank twelve inches across right in there again. We're going to move across the river drift drift drift drift.As we get to the end we're going to give a quick position set which is up a little snap of the wrist in an upward motion.
    I see a lot of anglers on the river they'll make three four five cast in a section there's no fish there and they move with this method. I like to break the river down into a foot twelve inch sections, I like to make eight to ten cast in every section that way I know I've gotten at least four good drifts through there my flies are on the bottom and if there was a fish in there then my opportunities to catch it just went up. Then you move over and you cover another section of water. So a run or riffle I'll break it down twelve inch sections and then may be eight ten feet long. So it'll take me a while to fish a little piece of water and you can swatch anglers with standard rigs they just jump in there four or five cast. There's nothing in here which is great news you can move right in there and just catch all the fish that they just left got.
    This big Rolly piece of water right here a lot of times away that hydraulic words. The fastest current is going to be in the top six to twelve inches of water and I can fish right underneath that with this rig because the Flies are so heavy they'll get down. So I'll throw it right up at the top of it and drift it down through there quick position. Set a lot of times if you catch a fish orout from underneath this Rolly water like this they had no idea you were there with the Czech polish French or Spanish method you can get up into that riff flea water which is where fish moved to feed and you can really catch a lot of fish out of those waters that you're typically going to miss with your standard indicator rig and the reason that is is just the way it sinks it sinks in an arcing motion where the heavier flies that we use on the to fly rig when they hit the water they're right on the ball instantly and you're covering that water quickly a lot of times you'll cast up into that fast water and say oh there's not a fish in there and by the time you tighten up on the rig after you've made your cast the fish is already eating your fly and jumping out of the water with it. With fishing this heavier fly with level leaders you are in contact with the bottom. If there's a lot of sticks and debris in the bottom of the string you're going to hang up a lot. So I'm hung up on the bottom now a lot of times.
    What happens if you'll just slide up a little bit and just move very methodically if you'll get your rod tip over you strip down a little bit a lot of times it'll just pop right out if you don't fish these on droplet tags like we're going to show you in the rigging section. Then the way that you're keeping your 45-degree angle of your leader into the water you're basically letting the hook point rod and that's the first thing that's going to any stick rock Boulder it's going to come in contact with and it will hang up instantly where being on the tag it's allowed to roll like a bowling ball down the river. So most anglers on the stream when you watch them fish whether it be an indicator or a dry fly they get a tape fish indicator goes under they'll lift it straight up and hook with the Czech method. Your rod tips parallel to the water you don't have that you're not high-sticking. So as you're drifting drifting drifting and that indicator jumps you feel the rod bump you know quick vibration or you see the fish. It's an up and away hook set. So you're swinging the fly into the fish's mouth even more if you lift it straight up that fish may have started to realize okay this is not real and I'm spitting it out or so you're pulling it back into the fish at that point in time when you've got them hooked. Then you want to get right above them keep your rod tip high keep the tip over the fish and fight them. The only bad part about setting the hook down in a way with this method is when you if you hit a smaller fish now a lot of times they'll jump out of the water and start cartwheeling end-over-end and with the heavy tungsten being flopping around you'll lose a couple but not a very common thing that happens because the way you're driving that hook you'll usually have them right in in the top of the mouth or in the corner which is you get extra points for putting them there. So you really want to get that fish on the reel you've got a nice reel. You've got a nice drag system with it use it the drag is much more sensitive than your finger your typical reaction when a fish makes a hard run on you is to clamp down on the line well the fish is going south the lines trying to go south and you're stopping it or pulling it back north something's got a break and it's going to be the tip hopefully not the rod but usually the dipping get the fish on the reel let the reel do its work you don't feel like you have enough drag is when you're playing and always reach up and just adjust the knob a little bit give a little more tension to the point where it's not locked down.
    Traduction souhaitée?

    Cut Loop Nymphs

    Cut Loop Nymphs

    New method to add gills or legs using a spiral wrap of fibres.

    Nouvelle méthode pour ajouter des branchies ou des pattes à l'aide d'un enroulement de fibres en spirale.

    (Les pattes sont ici en organza.)

    Par Nick Thomas.

    Voir les matériaux.

    Montage étape par étape.

    Méthode un peu lourde. Astucieux mais peut-être lui préférer d’autres montages de pattes. Ne pas mettre de vernis mais de la colle pour le noeud final.
    Je n’ai pas très bien saisi à quoi servait le sous-corps de couleur argent sauf si on admet d'espacer un peu les enroulements du fil élastique pour le laisser apparaitre entre les enroulements et que, suivant la couleur utilisée pour le fil élastique, on peut obtenir un reflet par transparence.

    Notes de l'auteur:
    A great way to easily add multiple gills and/or legs to nymph or shrimp patterns. A spiral of fibres is wound up the body over a plastic tube held in place under the body with temporary thread wraps. The fibres are then locked in place along the back with UV-resin, the tube removed and the resulting loops cut to form the gills or legs. I've used organza fibres in the video, but the same method could be used with any long synthetic fibre. Thanks for watching. Traduction souhaitée?

    Nick Thomas est le spécialiste de montages d'artificielles en organza. Un article lui sera spécialement consacré. Il est très présent sur les réseaux et on peut le suivre sur Global FlyFisher, sur Youtube ou sur la revue E(eat)S(leep)F(ish).


    Fly fishing terminology (in alphabetical order)



    Termes anglais de pêche fréquemment utilisés

    Traduction souhaitée?

    Fly Fishing Lingo

    Fly Fishing Terminology (in alphabetical order) par Redington :

    A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

    Anadromous Fish: Fish that are born in freshwater, migrate to saltwater to grow and return to freshwater to spawn, such as salmon and steelhead.

    Arbor: The center part of a fly reel where first backing and then line is wound (see Large Arbor, Standard Arbor, Mid-Arbor).

    Arbor knot: A knot used for tying backing to the arbor of the fly reel.

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    Back Cast: In fly fishing, casting is a back-and-forth motion of the rod and line that allows you to place your fly where you'd like. The back cast is when your rod and line are behind you.

    Backing: An added braided line that connects the reel's spool to the fly line. Since fly lines average 75-115 feet in length, the lines require backing for those adrenaline-charged times when a large fish runs out all of the regular fly line.

    Barb: The backward facing projection cut into a hook.

    Barbless: Barbless hooks are either manufactured without a barb or the barb is squeezed down using hemostats or pliers. 'Going barbless' makes it easier to remove a hook and minimizes the handling and potential damage to a fish you intend to release.

    Beadhead: A style of fly utilizing a bead immediately behind the hook eye. Some beads help a fly sink, but others are floaters.

    Blank: A hollow rod is called a blank. It has no guides, ferrules or reel seat. Fly rods are produced by wrapping sheets of fiberglass and graphite material around a carefully tapered steel rod (called a mandrel).

    Blood Knot: The most widely used knot for tying two pieces of monofilament with similar diameters together; the best knot for construction of a knotted tapered leader.

    Break off: A break off is that heartbreaking moment when an unusually strong or large fish snaps the line, typically due to an undersized tippet or worn leader, or a poorly tied knot.

    Butt section: 1) the thicker end of a tapered leader that is tied to the fly line and 2) the last section of a rod, at the end of the handle.

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    Caddis: One of the three most important aquatic insects imitated by fly fishers 'the other two being mayflies and midges' found worldwide in all freshwater habitats. The adult resembles a moth when in flight; at rest the wings are folded in a tent shape down the back. The most important aquatic state of the caddis is the pupa, which is its emerging stage (see Larva, Pupa and Emerger).

    Cast: This is the motion you make when you collectively 'throw' a fly rod, reel and line. There are different types of casting for different fishing applications. (See Back Cast, Overhead Cast, River Load Cast, Roll Cast, Water Tension Cast).

    Casting arc: The path that the fly rod follows during a complete cast.

    Catch and release: A practice within fly fishing intended as a technique of conservation. Fish should be fought quickly and never allowed to tire to the point of exhaustion to prevent injury or death. After capture, the fish is unhooked using wet hands ' or no touching if possible ' and forceps and returned to the water as quickly as possible. If necessary, resuscitate by pointing the fish's head upstream into the current and waiting until it swims off under its own power.

    Chironomid: A scientific name for the members of the Diptera family of insects commonly known as midges. In the pupae stage they typically appear to be small aquatic worms. In addition to caddis and mayflies, one of the most important insects in a trout's diet.

    Click Drag (or Click & Pawl Reel): A mechanical system on a fly reel used to slow down or resist the pulling efforts of a fish, so as to slow the fish down and tire it to the point where it can be landed.

    Clinch Knot: A universally used knot for attaching a hook, lure, swivel, or fly to the leader or line; a slight variation results in the Improved Clinch Knot, which is an even stronger knot for the above uses.

    Cone Head: Same as a beadhead but the bead is cone shaped.

    Covering (or Delivery): Used to describe the action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water.

    Current Seam (or Seam): Current seams are formed by the nature of current flow. Usually the middle of a river or stream contains the fastest flow with its edges having slower flows due to friction with the bank and the streambed obstacles. A stream channel's curvature redirects its heaviest flow away from the remainder of the stream creating current seams.

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    Damselfly: An important still water aquatic insect most commonly imitated in the nymphal form, with hatches usually occurring in early to mid-summer. Adult looks similar to a dragonfly but smaller and folds its wings along its back when at rest.

    Dead Drift: A perfect float in which the fly is traveling at the same pace as the current, used in both dry fly and nymph fishing (see Mending Line and "S" Cast).

    Delivery (or Covering): Used to describe the action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water.

    Disc Drag: A mechanical system on more expensive fly reels intended to efficiently slow and tire a fish that is taking line. Resistance is created between discs that apply pressure as line is pulled from the reel. Different from the click drag, the disc drag is smoother and less likely to create a sudden stopping resistance that will break the line.

    Dorsal Fin: The fin on the back of a fish, sometimes divided into two or three partly or entirely separate sections.

    Double Haul: In this cast the fly fisher quickly pulls and releases the line on both the back cast and the forward cast. It is used to create greater line speed, enabling the caster to reach farther or cut through wind.

    Double Taper (DT): A standard fly line design in which both ends of the line are tapered, while the greater portion or "belly" of the line is level. An excellent line for short to moderate-length casts and for roll casting, but not as well suited for distance casts.

    Drag: (1) An unnatural motion of the fly caused by the effect of the current on line and leader. Drag is usually detrimental, though at times useful ' such as imitating the actions of the adult caddis. (2) Resistance applied to the reel spool to prevent it from turning faster than the line leaving the spool (used in playing larger fish).

    Drag-Free Drift: This is accomplished when you minimize the effect of the current flow on the fly. This is equally important when fishing dry flies or nymphs. Trout are more likely to take food moving at the same speed as naturals being carried by the current and may even be spooked by flies moving too fast or too slow.

    Drift: Four types of drifts: Straight upstream from you, upstream and across from you, downstream and across from you, straight downstream from you (see Fishing the Drift).

    Dropper: A practice of fishing two flies at the same time, often one on the surface and a second underwater. A classic combo like the 'Hopper-Dropper' features a dry fly grasshopper pattern with a small nymph or emerger pattern tied off the bend of the hook. A dropper effectively doubles your chances of finding which type of insect and imitation fly the fish are keying on.

    Dry Fly: Any fly fished upon the surface of the water, usually constructed of non-water-absorbent materials. Dry flies are most commonly used to imitate the adult stage of aquatic insects.

    Dry Fly Floatant: Chemical preparation that is applied to a dry fly to waterproof it immediately before use; may be a paste, liquid, or aerosol.

    Dun: (1) First stage in the adult mayfly's life cycle, usually of short duration of 1 to 24 hours. This is the stage most often imitated by the dry fly. (2) A darkish gray-blue color that is very desirable in some fly tying materials.

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    Eddy: A section of water that is less disturbed than the surrounding water, often found on the edge of a current or where two streams converge.

    Elbow Control: The idea in the overhead and roll cast is to obtain a tight, wind-cutting loop that will roll line accurately to the target. To achieve a tight loop, maintain your elbow on a constant level as you move the rod from the pickup, to the back cast, to the forward stroke. Holding the elbow "on the shelf" is much easier done when the feet are placed as described in the Stance. When your upper body can pivot with little constriction as you move the rod back and forth, the elbow will almost automatically stay in a constant plane.

    Emerger: Pertaining to aquatic insects, the name used to describe that time frame when the nymph reaches the surface and the adult hatches out. The emerging nymph may well be the single most important nymph phase for the fly fisher to imitate.

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    False Cast: A standard fly fishing cast used to lengthen and shorten line, change direction and to dry off the fly; frequently overused. In false casting, the line is kept moving backward and forward without being allowed to touch the surface of the water or the ground (see Casting Arc, Back Cast, and Forward Cast).

    Ferrule: A collar that is found at the point where sections of a fly rod are joined. The end of one section fits inside the end of another, in an overlapping fashion at the ferrule.

    Fingerling: A small, immature fish, such as a juvenile trout.

    Fishing the Drift: This is the process of fishing from your target point to where you will pick up the line for your next cast. If you chose your initial casting position carefully, you can get a long drift, maximizing your chance of catching a fish.

    Fish Ladder: A series of interconnected pools created up the side of a river obstruction, such as a dam, to allow salmon and other fish to pass upstream.

    Floatant: A water-proofing (usually oily) salve or cream that is used to help flies, leaders and fly lines float.

    Floating Fly Line: The best all-around fly line in which the entire line floats (see Double Taper, Level, Shooting Head, Weight Forward).

    Fluorocarbon: Tippet or leader material that is virtually invisible underwater, sinks quickly and doesn't reflect light on the water surface so fish can't see it.

    Fly: A hand-tied artificial lure imitating natural insects or baitfish to entice fish. Flies incorporate different natural and synthetic materials wound onto or otherwise secured on hooks.

    Fly Casting: A standard method of presenting a fly to a target using a fly rod and fly line, involving many different casts (see Back Cast, Forward Cast, False Cast, Roll Cast, "S" Cast, and Shooting Line).

    Fly Line: Special line designed for fly fishing. It is made of a tapered plastic coating over a braided Dacron or nylon core; available in several tapers and in floating, sinking and sink-tip styles (see Double Taper, Shooting Head, Weight Forward, Sink-tip, and Floating Fly Line).

    Fly Pattern: Also called a 'recipe,' this is the fixed design of materials and positioning of parts that make up an artificial fly.

    Fly Reel: Fishing reel used in fly fishing to hold the fly line.

    Fly Rod: A type of fishing rod especially designed to cast a fly line. Fly rods differ from other types of rods in that the reel attaches at the butt of the rod with the rod handle always above the reel. Fly rods usually have more line guides than other types of rods of the same length. Fly rod lengths vary, with common lengths being between 7 and 9 feet. Materials used in fly rod construction are bamboo, fiberglass, and graphite.

    Fly Tying: The process of building fishing flies by hand using thread and various natural and synthetic materials.

    Forceps: A hand-operated medical instrument widely used in fly fishing to remove flies from the jaws of a hooked fish. Smooth or lightly serrated jaws utilize a ratchet-locking mechanism to clamp onto the hook until you release them. Also called hemostats.

    Forward (or Power) Stroke: In fly fishing, casting is a back-and-forth motion of the rod and line that allows you to place your fly where you'd like. The forward cast (or stroke) is when your rod and line are cast in front of you, toward your target. Imagine a clock on the wall to your right (casting instructions are the same for right or left-handed casters). Keeping the forearm, wrist, upper arm and shoulder in the same plane as the back cast, drive the whole arm forward, loading the rod. Continue the forward (power) stroke until the rod reaches the ten o'clock position. Then let the rod tip drift down slightly and let go of the line with your non-casting hand, shooting the line toward your target. (see Power Stroke)

    Forward Taper: (see Weight Forward).

    Foul Hook: To hook a fish anywhere but in the mouth.

    Freestone: A type of river or stream with a significant gradient, resulting in medium to fast-moving water. Although the upper reaches of a freestone stream may be spring-fed, the vast majority of its flow comes from run-off or tributaries. The fast-moving water inhibits the growth of weeds or other rooted vegetation resulting in a 'Free Stone' bottom. Less fertile than spring creeks, freestone streams have smaller and less diverse aquatic insect populations. Fewer bugs in faster water usually results in fewer but more opportunistic trout.

    Fry: The first stage of a fish after hatching from an egg.

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    Gel-spun polyethylene: A synthetic fiber that is extremely thin, supple, slippery, abrasion resistant and strong. Stronger than steel for its size, it is often used as a braided fly line backing where large amounts of backing are needed and space on the reel is limited.

    Graphite: The most popular rod-building material in use today, graphite offers the best weight, strength and flex ratio of any rod building material currently available.

    Gravel Guards: Flaps on each wader leg that hook over wading boots to further secure the waders and to prevent debris from getting inside the wading boots. Most waders today have built-in gravel guards with elastic bottoms and hooks to keep wader leg in place.

    Grip: The cork handle of a fly rod, generally made of cork rings shaped in several different ways including a cigar grip, full-wells grip and half-wells grip. To grip: First locate the balance point of the rod by placing the rod on the edge of the index finger with the reel pointing down. The balance point is where the rod is level or close to it. This point is generally about 1/4 to 1/2 inch back from the front of the cork grip on most rods.

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    Hatch: A large number of flies of the same species. 

    Haul: A pull on the fly line with the non-casting hand to increase the line speed to gain greater distance. This is done effectively during line pickup (see Double Haul).

    Headwaters: An upstream section of the river before the main tributaries join it. This section is typically much smaller in width and flow than the main section of the river. 

    Hemostat: A clamp or forceps used by fly fishermen to remove flies from the mouths of trout. 

    Hook: The foundation upon which the fly is tied. Hooks are made from steel wire and are either bronzed, cadmium coated, or stainless. Hook designs are variable; the style used depends upon the type of fly being tied. Hook sizes range from tiny to huge and to a degree are standardized based upon the gap ' or gape ' defined as the distance between the hook shank and the hook point.

    Hook Keeper: Made of a loop of thin wire built into the shaft of the fly rod near the grip, a keeper safely secures the fly while still attached to the line. This prevents losing the fly to streamside foliage and grasses on the walk to the next promising spot. 

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    Imitative Flies: Tied to more closely match specific insects, imitative flies are most effective on finicky trout living in clear, fertile, slow-moving streams supporting large populations of aquatic insects.

    Impressionistic Flies: Tied to loosely suggest a variety of insects or insect families, impressionistic flies are usually most effective in streams with medium to fast water with less dense populations of aquatic insects. 

    Improved Clinch Knot: One of the most widely used fishing knots, it provides a good method of securing a fishing line to a hook, lure, or swivel. 

    Indicator (or Strike Indicator): A floating object placed on the leader or end of the fly line to "indicate" the take of the fly by a fish or to indicate the path of the drift of the fly. Made of materials such as floating putty, poly yarn (soaked with floatant), foam and rubber, strike indicators are very effective when nymph fishing with a slack line.

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    Jumping Rise: This is when a trout comes out of the water to catch a rising insect, possibly indicating a caddis hatch is occurring.

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    Knotless Tapered Leader: A fly fishing leader entirely constructed from a single piece of monofilament.

    Knotted Leader: A fly fishing leader constructed by knotting sections of different diameter leader material to each other to make a tapered leader. Most commonly used knots to construct such a leader are Blood (or Barrel) Knot and Surgeon's Knot (see Blood Knot, Surgeon's Knot, Leader, Tapered Leader, Leader Material). 

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    Large Arbor: Compared to a standard fly reel's narrow 'arbor,' the diameter of the line-holding area on a large arbor reel is a wider. This important design difference greatly increases line retrieve rate. With the large arbor reel, fly fishers are able to consistently strip off long lengths of slack line for casting, and then reel it up quickly when playing a fish or moving to a different spot. Bigger coils of line coming off the reel allow for easier casting with fewer tangles. Also, a large arbor reel's drag works more soundly because as a fish pulls out line, the effective spool diameter remains nearly constant.

    Larva: The immature, aquatic, growing-stage of the caddis and some other insects. Many species of caddis larva build a protective covering of fine gravel or debris to protect them in this stage. The larva is a bottom-dwelling, non-swimming stage of the insect.

    Lay Down (after the pick-up): A fly fishing cast using only a single back cast. The line is lifted from the water and a back cast made, followed by a forward cast that is allowed to straighten and fall to the water, completing the cast (see Pickup).

    Leader: The section of monofilament line between the fly line and the fly. It is usually tapered, so that it will deliver the fly softly and away from the fly line (see Knotted Leader, Knotless Tapered Leader, Turn-over, and Monofilament).

    Lie: The areas in a river or lake where fish hang out, optimum lies are typically out of the main current, present cover from predators or provide a good source of insects and other food.

    Line Weight: The weight of the first 30 feet of a fly line determines the line weight of a rod or reel. This measurement system is used as a way to standardize fly lines in matching them to fly rods of differing stiffness. Line weighting is not a linear numbering system; the first 30 feet of a #6 weight line weighs 160 grains, while the first 30 feet of a #3 weight line is 100 grains.

    Loading the Rod: When either a forward or backward cast is made, the weight of the line puts a bend in the rod thus 'loading' or storing the energy necessary for the ensuing forward or backward cast.

    Loop to Loop: A way to connect a fly line and a leader by making a loop at the end of the leader ' using a Perfection Loop knot ' and joining it to a loop at the end of the fly line. Loop-to-loop connections are sometimes made from a leader to a tippet.

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    Matching The Hatch: An attempt by a fly angler to select an artificial fly that imitates the color, size, shape and behavior of natural insects that fish are feeding on at a particular time. Often when a hatch is happening, fish become very selective and refuse insects that do not match the predominant insects present.

    Mayfly: Commonly found in cold or cool freshwater environments, mayflies are the most commonly imitated aquatic insects worldwide. Most dry fly and nymph patterns imitate these insects. The nymph stage of the mayfly lasts approximately one year; adult stages last one to three days. The adult has one pair of upright wings, making it look like a small sailboat.

    Mid-Arbor: This refers to the size of area of a reel that holds the fly line. A mid-arbor reel is your 'middle' option between a standard arbor reel and a large arbor reel. A mid-arbor design gives you a large line capacity plus the added benefits of rapid retrieve and reduced line coiling over a standard arbor.

    Minimizing Stream Current Drag: Mending your line by throwing a loop of line into the drifting line can help it to move at the same speed as the current, reducing current drag. Depending on the cast and the drift situation, appropriate mends may be upstream, downstream, or a series of 'S' mends.

    Mending Line: A method used after the line is on the water to achieve a drag-free float. It constitutes a flip, or series of flips with the rod tip, that puts a horseshoe shaped bow in the line. This slows the speed with which the line travels if mended upstream and speeds up the line if mended downstream. For example: If a cast is made across the flow of the stream and the fastest part of the current is on your side of the water, an upstream mend would be required to slow the rate of the line's drift downstream. Thus, your line will better keep pace with the fly traveling in the slower water on the far side of the main current.

    Monofilament: A clear, supple nylon filament used in all types of fishing that is available in many breaking strengths and diameters (see: Breaking Strength).

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    Nail Knot: A method used to attach a leader or butt section of monofilament to the fly line and of attaching the backing to the fly line; most commonly tied using a small diameter tube ' such as section of a plastic coffee stirrer ' rather than a nail.

    Narrow Loop: As the fly line travels through the air it should form a narrow loop to cut wind resistance. In appearance a narrow loop resembles the letter "U" turned on its side and is formed by using a narrow casting arc.

    Nymph: The immature form of insects. As fly fishers, we are concerned only with the nymphs of aquatic insects.

    Nymphing: Describes fish actively feeding on nymphs as well as the method of fishing imitation nymph patterns ' typically weighted flies and added split-shot on the leader fished under a strike indicator ' to catch them. In riffles and other shallow areas of a river, a fly angler wearing polarized glasses may see the silvery 'flash' of a feeding trout trying to dislodge nymphs from rocks or quickly moving to take naturals drifting with the current.

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    Open Loop: The signature cast where the loop 'opens' as it travels through the air. A common malady for new casters, an open loop is caused by a very wide casting arc, resulting in increased wind resistance on the line and decreased accuracy.

    Overhead Cast: This is the traditional fly rod cast most people associate with fly fishing. It is used for presentation of everything from nymphs and streamers to wet flies and dry flies. The Basic Overhead Cast has five parts: Pause, Pickup, Back Cast, Power or Forward Stroke and Shooting the Line

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    Palming: Gently applying the palm of your hand against the spool edge of a fly reel is an effective method to help slow the release of line when fighting large fish.

    Pause: This is the part just before you begin your pickup. Allow a moment for the river current to straighten your line below you. This makes it easier to perform the pickup. Strip some line toward you and hold it in your non-casting hand in loose coils, or larger coils at your feet if making longer casts (this retrieved line is for shooting toward the target).

    Pectoral Fins: The pair of fins just behind the head of a fish.

    Pelvic Fins: The pair of fins on the lower body of a fish; also called ventral fins.

    Perfection Loop: This is a knot often used to create a loop in a piece of monofilament, frequently at the butt end of a leader for the loop-to-loop connection.

    Pickup (and Lay Down): In this part, you lift the fly line off water by moving your hand, wrist, forearm and upper arm in an upward arc. Then bend the elbow and move the wrist, forearm and upper arm in a backward motion rotating at the shoulder. This will pick the line up and start the back cast over your shoulder (see Lay Down).

    Polarized Sun Glasses: Sunglasses with iodized lenses that block incident light (glare) and thus allow anglers to better see beneath the surface glare of water. An ideal accessory to help any fly angler to better spot fish.

    Pool: A segment of a river or stream featuring slower currents and increased depths that helps protect fish from predatory birds and animals. Pools also give fish a rest from swimming against heavier currents, particularly important during spawning migrations.

    Presentation: The act of casting the fly on the water and offering it to the fish. The objective is to present the fly in a manner similar to the natural insect or food form that you are imitating. The variety of presentations is infinite and changes with each fishing situation.

    Pupa: In insects, the transition stage between the larva and the adult. To fly fishers, caddis pupa are the most important of these insects.

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    Reach Cast: A cast used for adding extra slack in the line, or when fishing downstream, in order to provide a more natural float.

    Redd: A hollow scooped in the sand or gravel of a riverbed by breeding trout or salmon as a spawning area.

    Reel Seat: A mechanism that holds the reel to the rod, usually using locking metal rings or sliding bands.

    Retrieve: Bringing the fly back toward the caster after the cast is made. Retrieves can be done in a variety of ways, but the most important point is to remember to keep the rod tip low and pointed straight down the line.

    Riffle: A quickened flow of water over smaller rocks or gravel, either at the head or tail of a pool. Often a foot-or-less deep in the late season, riffles can be very productive when fished with a two-fly rig, often nymphs.

    Riparian: A term that describes anything of, inhabiting, or situated on a riverbank; often used in connection with ownership and fishing rights.

    Rise: Rise forms are the patterns a trout makes as it takes a fly. There are several distinctive forms (see Sipping Rise, Jumping Rise and Tailing Rise).

    River Load (or Water Tension) Cast: This is a cast, motion or technique where the caster uses the river's current to load the rod. Let the line get straight and almost 90 degrees in relation to the rod tip. Point the rod down toward the water. Using a side arm motion, quickly move the rod toward the target. The force of the river's current and your motion against the current will quickly load the fly rod.

    Rocks: Rocks provide a break in the current, allowing fish to station themselves in front of and behind them to feed, particularly medium to large rocks. As water passes over the sides of rocks, the current speed is reduced, making it easier for fish to hold. Fish generally will not expend more energy than necessary to catch food.

    Rod Flex: The manner in which the rod bends during the cast during the acceleration phases of the cast, forward or back. Tip-Flex rods bend primarily through the tip section, Mid-Flex rods bend down into the middle section, and Full-Flex rods bend throughout the entire rod during the cast.

    Roll Cast: This is a main cast every fly fisher should master. It can be used to cast short to medium distances - 15 to 30 feet of line. It can also be used as a means of picking up the line off the water. When performed properly, this cast can deliver small dry flies to large nymphs.

    Run: A place where the water comes in between a bank and a rock or between two rocks. A run can be fast to slow. If the run has several large rocks along one side, trout can hold against the side of these rocks. The same applies to a bank area.

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    "S" Cast: A cast used to put deliberate and controlled slack into a cast; used in getting a drag-free float and in conjunction with mending line (see Drag, Dead Drift, Mending Line).

    Scud: A small freshwater shrimp-like crustacean that is present in most trout waters and serves as a food source for trout; very prevalent in spring creeks.

    Seam (Current Seam): (see Current Seam)

    Seam Water: The area where two current flows comes together (one slower, one faster), ideal for holding trout. Fish will hang out in the slower flow and dart out into the faster flow to capture a tasty morsel. Look for seam water where an island splits the main current or a couple of large rocks may divert part of the main flow.

    Sea-run: Trout that that hatch in fresh water, migrate to the sea to mature and return to fresh water to spawn are known as sea-runs. Species include browns, cutthroats and rainbows. Rainbow trout ' in the Pacific Northwest and Great Lakes ' are the best-known sea-run trout, called steelhead.

    Setting the Hook: The act of pulling the hook into the flesh of the fish's mouth. The amount of effort needed to do this varies with the size of hook, type of fish, and breaking strength of leader; people often strike too hard on trout and warm water fish and not hard enough on salmon and saltwater fish.

    Shank: The long straight part of the hook between the eye and the bend.

    Shooting Line: The process of extending the length of your fly cast by releasing an extra length of fly line (usually held in your non-casting hand) during the forward/presentation part of the cast. This technique allows a fly angler to false cast a shorter segment of line and then only at the time of the final forward cast to bring a longer segment of line into play.

    Shooting Taper (ST or Shooting Head): A short single-tapered fly line, shooting heads are designed for longer casts with minimum effort. Shooting heads allow you to switch between different line types (floating, sinking, sink-tip, etc.) by quickly interchanging head sections. Most commonly used for salmon, steelhead and saltwater species, shooting heads can be used in all types of fly fishing.

    Sink Rate: The speed at which a sinking fly line sinks; there are at least 6 different sink rates for fly lines, from very slow to extremely fast.

    Sink-Tip Fly Line: A floating fly line where the tip portion sinks; available in 4-foot, 10-foot, 12-foot, 15-foot, 20-foot, 24-foot and 30-foot sinking tips. The 10-foot sink-tips are most commonly used and are practical in many applications. Sink-tip lines are useful in all types of fly fishing, but especially in wet fly or streamer fishing.

    Sinking Fly Line (S): A fly line in which the entire length of the line sinks beneath the surface of the water.

    Sipping Rise: A quiet trout-rise that produces a circular waveform, much like a rock dropped in a pool or water. A rise form of this kind may indicate a large trout is feeding, especially at dawn or dusk feeding times.

    Spawn: The behavior of fish in which females deposit eggs ' also called spawn ' on various surfaces (varying with species) and the male produces necessary milt to fertilize eggs, ultimately resulting in fry.

    Spey: A particular casting technique using special two-handed rods and a modified roll cast. It is named after a river in Scotland where it was developed.

    Spinner: The egg-laying stage of the mayfly; overall not as important to the fly fisher as the dun stage (see Mayfly and Dun).

    Spool: The revolving part of the fly reel that holds the backing and the fly line. You may wish to purchase additional spools for your reel, enabling you to quickly change from one type of line to another to match fishing conditions.

    Spring Creek: A creek or stream that gets its water from an underground aquifer or spring sources, rather than glacier/snow melt or surface run-off. Featuring consistent flows of very pure, clean water throughout the year unaffected by seasonal conditions, water temperatures in spring creeks don't tend to fluctuate compared to traditional creeks and rivers because they are fed by underground water sources.

    Stalking: The action of creeping up on a fish so as not to surprise or disturb it.

    Stance: The foot of the casting side should be back at roughly a 45-degree angle from the lead foot and about shoulder width apart. Right handed: right foot back. Left handed: left foot back. This stance allows your body to twist back and forth with the cast easily. If you stand with your feet parallel to each other, you constrict the body's ability to move and limit your casting accuracy and distance.

    Steelhead: A migratory rainbow trout (sea-run).

    Stonefly: A very important aquatic insect and food source for trout in all stages of its life cycle. Stonefly nymphs live for one to three years, depending on species. Most species hatch out by crawling to the shoreline and emerging from their nymphal case above the surface. Thus, adults are available to trout only along the shoreline and around midstream obstructions; adult has two pair of wings that are folded flat along its back when at rest. Stoneflies require a rocky streambed with very good water quality.

    Streamer: A fly tied to imitate the various species of baitfish upon which both fresh and saltwater game fish feed. Streamers are big, often heavily weighted flies that sink fast and have a natural swimming motion. The old adage of 'big fly, big fish' applies to fishing streamers; the largest trout depend on baitfish to get the greatest caloric intake for the least amount of energy expended. A fish that would not be moved to take a small dry fly might crush a properly presented streamer pattern.

    Strike: The attempt a fish makes to eat a fly, successfully or not. This term also refers to the movement of the rod a fly angler makes to set the hook.

    Strike Indicator: (see Indicator)

    Stripping Line: Retrieving the line by pulling it in through your fingers as opposed to winding it in on the reel.

    Surgeon's Knot: Excellent knot used to tie two lengths of monofilament together; the lines may be of dissimilar diameters.

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    Tag (or Tag End): These are the one or two lengths of tippet remaining after tying a knot. In the case of a blood knot, one of the tag ends may be left intentionally long, allowing you to tie on a dropper fly above your terminal (or point) fly.

    Tail: The part of the fly usually constructed of fine feather or hair, on the end of the hook. The tail might imitate an insect's legs or the pupal shuck still attached to emerging caddis or mayflies. Generally, a tail adds motion and a life-like appearance to a fly.

    Tailing Rise: When feeding in shallow water, you will often see a fish's caudal fin exposed. Tailing fish are an exciting discovery and generally signal the possibility of getting strikes by the proper presentation of the right fly.

    Tailwater: The downstream section of a river or stream found below a large man-made dam. The most famous and productive tailwaters are from bottom-discharge dams, making the water relatively cold and constant in temperature.

    Tapered Leader: A leader made of monofilament and used for fly fishing. The back or butt section of the leader is of a diameter nearly as large as the fly line, becoming progressively smaller in diameter toward the tip end (see Knotless Tapered Leader, Knotted Leader, and Tippet).

    Terrestrial: Terrestrials are land-based insects that often become food for fish, particularly in the warm summer months and/or during windy activity. Late summer grasshopper (hopper!) fishing is a favorite among dry-fly anglers, who revel in bringing up large, ravenous trout to this wind-bourn bounty.

    Tight Loop: Same as narrow loop (see Narrow Loop).

    Tip Section (or Tip Top): The top section of a fly rod, smallest in diameter and furthest from the rod grip.

    Tippet: Representing the end section of a tapered leader, the tippet is the smallest diameter section and where the fly is tied onto the leader. As your tippet becomes nicked on rocks or logs while fishing ' or when a section is lost along with your fly on an errant back cast in the trees ' you'll want to replace your tippet. Carry a number of spools of tippet in various diameters and breaking strengths to quickly match the diameter of your remaining fly leader.

    Trout Unlimited: A non-profit organization dedicated to the protection and improvement of trout fisheries, with an emphasis toward wild trout.

    Turn Over: How the fly line and leader straighten out at the completion of the cast.

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    Undercurrent: The flow or current of water, below another current or beneath a surface.

    Unloading the Rod: The unbending of the rod transfers the casting energy from the rod back into the fly line.

    Upstream: Against the current of the river or stream.

    Upwind: Into the wind.

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    Wader Belt: An adjustable belt cinched near the top of chest waders to keep out water, particularly recommended as a precaution in the event of a fall to prevent the waders from filling with water.

    Waders: Available in many styles and made of different waterproof fabrics, waders come in two main types: boot foot and stocking foot. Boot foot waders have boots built in, enabling you to just pull them on and go. Stocking foot waders require the use of a separate pair of wading shoes that, in turn, generally provide better support and traction.

    Wading Boots (or Shoes): These are boots built specifically to be worn over stocking foot waders. Their soles are made of either felt or rubber and many can also be stud-compatible.

    Wading Staff: A walking stick especially adapted to provide stability to a wading fly angler when moving through fast or deep water. Some wading staffs are foldable and can be kept in a fishing vest pocket until needed.

    Water Tension (or River Load) Cast: (see River Load Cast)

    Weight Forward Line (WF): An easy casting fly line because it carries most of its weight in the forward section of the line. Instead of a level middle section, like a double taper, it quickly tapers down from the rear of the forward section to a fine diameter running line, allowing it to shoot through the guides with less resistance for added distance. It is the most versatile fly line style.

    Wet Fly: Any fly fished below the surface of the water; nymphs and streamers are wet flies. Also a traditional style of fly tied with soft, swept back hackle and a backward sweeping wing. Wet flies are the forerunner of the nymph and streamer.

    Wet Fly Swing: A typical presentation method for fishing a wet fly, extensively used by steelheaders. Commonly used to imitate swimming mayflies, emerging caddis and small fish.

    Wind Knot: An overhand knot put in the leader by poor casting, greatly reducing the breaking strength of the leader.

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    'X': Used in conjunction with a number, the letter 'X' is a measurement designating the diameter of leader material, such as "4X". The lower the number the larger the diameter of tippet, indicating increased breaking strength. Therefore, delicate 7X tippet will be of a much smaller diameter with a significantly lighter breaking strength than more stout 2X tippet.

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    Zinger: A retractable device used to hang necessary items off your fly vest ' such as nippers ' to keep them out of the way when not in use.

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